Race and Ethnicity

1. Race and Ethnicity

2. Chapter Outline

Race and Ethnicity



Sociological Perspectives on Race and Ethnic Relations

Racial and Ethnic Groups in the United States

Global Racial and Ethnic Inequality in the Future

3. What Is Race?

Some people view race as:

Skin color: the Caucasian “race”,

Religion: the Jewish “race”

Nationality: the British “race”

Entire human species: the human “race”

4. Race and Biology

A race is a category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, on the basis of real or alleged physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, eye shape, or other attributes.

Race has little meaning biologically due to interbreeding in the human population.

5. Polling Question

Think about Whites in the U.S. compared to ethnic and racial minority groups. To what extent do you agree with the following statement: Whites as a group are very distinct from ethnic and racial minority groups.

Strongly agree

Agree somewhat


Disagree somewhat

Strongly disagree

6. Characteristics of Ethnic Groups

Unique cultural traits.

A sense of community.

A feeling of ethnocentrism.

Ascribed membership from birth.

Tendency to occupy a geographic area.

7. How Much Do You Know About Race, Ethnicity, and Sports?

True or False?

African Americans who competed in boxing matches in the late 1800s often had to agree to lose before they could obtain a match.

8. How Much Do You Know About Race, Ethnicity, and Sports?


Promoters, who often set up boxing matches that pitted fighters by race, assumed that white fans were more likely to buy tickets if the white fighters frequently won.

9. How Much Do You Know About Race, Ethnicity, and Sports?

True or False?

Until recently, the positions of quarterback and kicker in the National Football League have been held almost exclusively by white players.

10. How Much Do You Know About Race, Ethnicity, and Sports?


As late as the 1990s, whites accounted for about 90 percent of the quarterbacks and kickers on NFL teams. However, this changed early in the twenty-first century, and today there are some African Americans playing virtually every position on all professional football teams.

11. Dominant and Subordinate Groups

A dominant group is one that is advantaged and has superior resources and rights in a society.

A subordinate group is one whose members are disadvantaged and subjected to unequal treatment by the

dominant group and who

regard themselves as

objects of collective


12. Prejudice

A negative attitude based on generalizations about members of selected racial, ethnic, or other groups.

Ethnocentrism refers to the tendency to regard one’s own culture and group as the standard.

Stereotypes are overgeneralizations about the appearance, behavior, or other characteristics of members of particular categories.

13. Racism

A set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices used to justify the superior treatment of one racial or ethnic group and the inferior treatment of another racial or ethnic group.

Recent studies have shown that the underlying reasoning behind racism

differs according to

factors such as gender,

age, class, and


14. Merton’s Typology of Prejudice and Discrimination

15. Theories of Prejudice

Frustration-aggression hypothesis

People who are frustrated in their efforts to achieve a highly desired goal will respond with a pattern of aggression toward others.

Authoritarian Personality

Characterized by excessive conformity, submissiveness to authority, intolerance, insecurity, a high level of superstition, and rigid, stereotypic thinking.

16. Four Major Types of Discrimination

Isolate discrimination - A prejudiced judge giving harsher sentences to African American defendants.

Small-group discrimination - Small group of white students defacing a professor’s office with racist epithets.

17. Four Major Types of Discrimination

Direct institutionalized discrimination - Intentional exclusion of people of color from public accommodations.


de jure - by law

de facto - by practice

Indirect institutionalized discrimination - Special education classes may have contributed to racial stereotyping.

18. Contact Hypothesis

Contact between divergent groups should be positive as long as group members:

Have equal status.

Pursue the same goals.

Cooperate with one another to achieve goals.

Receive positive feedback while interacting.

19. Functionalist Perspectives on Race and Ethnic Relations

Assimilation - A process by which members of subordinate racial and ethnic groups become absorbed into the dominant culture.

Ethnic Pluralism - The coexistence of a variety of distinct racial and ethnic groups within one society.

20. Conflict Perspectives on Race and Ethnic Relations

The Caste Perspective views racial and ethnic inequality as a permanent feature of U.S. society.

Class perspectives emphasize the role of the capitalist class in racial exploitation.

Genocide - systematic attempt to kill all members of a social category

21. Conflict Perspectives on Race and Ethnic Relations

Internal Colonialism occurs when members of a racial or ethnic group are forcibly placed under the control of the dominant group.

Split Labor Market - The division of the economy into a primary sector composed of higher paid workers in more secure jobs, and a secondary sector of lower-paid workers in jobs with little security.

22. Critical Race Theory


The belief that racism is such an ingrained feature of U.S. society that it appears to be ordinary and natural to many people.

The belief that interest convergence is a crucial factor in bringing about social change.

23. Perspectives on Race and Ethnic Relations

24. Perspectives on Race and Ethnic Relations

25. Racial and Ethnic Groups in the United States

Native Americans

White Anglo-Saxon Protestants

African Americans

White Ethnic Americans

Asian Americans


Middle Eastern Americans

26. Polling Question

I would like to marry someone of a different racial or ethnic group.

Strongly agree

Agree somewhat


Disagree somewhat

Strongly disagree

27. Slide 27

28. Native Americans

Most disadvantaged group in the U.S. in terms of income, employment, housing, and nutrition.

According to the US Census, Native Americans have a 24% poverty rate, compared to the US poverty rate of 12.5%

As a group they have experienced:


Forced Migration

Forced Assimilation

29. African Americans

Slavery was rationalized by stereotyping African Americans as inferior and childlike.

Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and 1965 sought to eliminate discrimination in education, housing, employment and health care.

30. Polling Question

Descendents of slavery in the U.S. should be given economic restitution by the U.S. government for the consequences of slavery.

Strongly agree

Agree somewhat


Disagree somewhat

Strongly disagree

31. Asian Americans

Fastest growing ethnic minority in the U.S.

Includes Japanese, Korean, Filipino and Indochinese Americans, Cambodian, Vietnamese, Laotians.

Racial profiling and Japanese internment camps after the bombing of Pearl Harbor.

32. Latinos/as (Hispanic Americans)

Includes Mexican Americans, South Americans, Puerto Ricans and Cuban Americans.

Many Mexican American families have lived in the U.S. for 4 or 5 generations and have made significant contributions.

In 1917, Puerto Ricans acquired U.S. citizenship and the right to move freely to and from the mainland.

Do attitudes about illegal immigration contribute to a new prejudice against Mexican Americans?

33. Middle Eastern Americans

Includes immigrants from Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Iran, Iraq, and Jordan.

The Lebanese, Syrians, and Iranians primarily come from middle class backgrounds.

Most Iranian immigrants initially hoped to return to Iran; however, many have become U.S. citizens.

What are some of our current stereotypes about Middle Easterners?

Thurgood Marshall wrote that, "History teaches that grave threats to liberty often come in times of urgency, when constitutional rights seem too extravagant to endure." Recent surveys indicate that 66% of whites and 71% of African-Americans support the ethnic profiling of people who look to be of middle-eastern descent.

34. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the U.S.

In 1980 white Americans made up 80% of the population.

In 2000, white Americans made up 70% of the population.

By 2056, the roots of the average U.S. resident will be in Africa, Asia, Hispanic countries, the Pacific Islands, or Arabia-not white Europe.

According to the US Census for L.A.: Persons of Hispanic or Latino origin, 2005 46.8%

Long Beach Demographics (US Census 2000)

White 45.2%, Black 14.9%, Asian 12%, Latino 35.8%, Pacific Islander 1.2%, Some other race 20.6%, Two or more races 5.3%

35. Odds of Being a Pro Athlete by Race/Ethnicity and Sport