Sex: The Biological Dimension
Gender: The Cultural Dimension
Gender Stratification in Historical and Contemporary Perspective
Gender and Socialization
Contemporary Gender Inequality
Perspectives on Gender Stratification
Gender Issues in the Future
Sex refers to the biological differences between females and males.
Gender refers to the culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males.
At birth, male and female infants are distinguished by primary sex characteristics: the genitalia used in the reproductive process.
At puberty, an increased production of hormones results in the development of secondary sex characteristics: physical traits that identify an individual’s sex.
True or False?
Most people have an accurate perception of their physical appearance.
Many people do not have a very accurate perception of their bodies.
For example, many girls and women think of themselves as “fat” when they are not.
Some boys and men believe that they need a well-developed chest and arm muscles, broad shoulders, and a narrow waist.
True or False?
Young girls and women very rarely die as a result of anorexia or bulimia.
Although the exact number is not known, many young girls and women die as a result of starvation, malnutrition, and other problems associated with anorexia and bulimia.
An individual’s preference for emotional-sexual relationships with members of the opposite sex (heterosexuality), the same sex (homosexuality), or both (bisexuality).
Homosexual and gay are most often used in association with males who prefer same-sex relationships.
Lesbian is used in association with females who prefer same-sex relationships.
Heterosexual individuals, who prefer opposite-sex relationships, are sometimes referred to as straight.
Most “sex differences” are
Gender is embedded in
the images, ideas, and
language of a society.
Gender is used as a means to divide up work, allocate resources, and distribute power.
Negative attitudes toward women.
Stereotypical beliefs that reinforce, complement, or justify the prejudice.
Discrimination - acts that exclude, distance, or keep women separate.
strong, rational, dominant, independent, less concerned with appearance
weak, emotional, nurturing, dependent, anxious about appearance
If you were taking a new job and had your choice of a boss, would you prefer to work for a man or a woman?
Type of subsistence base.
Supply of and demand for labor.
The extent to which women's child-rearing activities are compatible with certain types of work.
Between 1990 and 2004, the number of U.S. families headed by single mothers increased by about 25%.
This marks a change in the roles of many women, and may indicate that “traditional” households are in decline.
Children's clothing and toys reflect their parents' gender expectations.
Children are often assigned household tasks according to gender.
Peers help children learn gender-appropriate and inappropriate behavior.
During adolescence, peers often are more effective at gender socialization than adults.
College student peers play an important role in career choices and the establishment of long term, intimate relationships.
Teachers provide messages about gender through classroom assignments and informal interactions with students.
Teachers may unintentionally show favoritism toward one gender over the other.
From elementary school through high school:
Boys play football.
Girls are cheerleaders, members of the drill team, and homecoming queens.
For many males, sports is a training ground for masculinity.
Male characters typically are more aggressive, constructive, and direct.
Females are deferential toward others or use manipulation to get their way.
If you could temporarily be the other gender, how long would you like to do so?
I have no desire to be the other gender
According to this model, individuals vary in the amount of human capital they bring to the labor market.
Human capital is acquired by education and job training; it is the source of a person’s productivity and can be measured in terms of the return on the investment (wages) and the cost (schooling or training) .