1. Sex and Gender

2. Chapter Outline

Sex: The Biological Dimension

Gender: The Cultural Dimension

Gender Stratification in Historical and Contemporary Perspective

3. Chapter Outline

Gender and Socialization

Contemporary Gender Inequality

Perspectives on Gender Stratification

Gender Issues in the Future

4.  Sex and Gender

Sex refers to the biological differences between females and males.

Gender refers to the culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males.

5. Sex Characteristics

At birth, male and female infants are distinguished by primary sex characteristics: the genitalia used in the reproductive process.

At puberty, an increased production of hormones results in the development of secondary sex characteristics: physical traits that identify an individual’s sex.

6. How Much Do You Know About Body Image and Gender?

True or False?

Most people have an accurate perception of their physical appearance.

7. How Much Do You Know About Body Image and Gender?


Many people do not have a very accurate perception of their bodies.

For example, many girls and women think of themselves as “fat” when they are not.

Some boys and men believe that they need a well-developed chest and arm muscles, broad shoulders, and a narrow waist.

8. How Much Do You Know About Body Image and Gender?

True or False?

Young girls and women very rarely die as a result of anorexia or bulimia.

9. How Much Do You Know About Body Image and Gender?


Although the exact number is not known, many young girls and women die as a result of starvation, malnutrition, and other problems associated with anorexia and bulimia.

10. Sexual Orientation

An individual’s preference for emotional-sexual relationships with members of the opposite sex (heterosexuality), the same sex (homosexuality), or both (bisexuality).

11. Sexual Orientation

Homosexual and gay are most often used in association with males who prefer same-sex relationships.

Lesbian is used in association with females who prefer same-sex relationships.

Heterosexual individuals, who prefer opposite-sex relationships, are sometimes referred to as straight.

12. Gender: The Cultural Dimension

Most “sex differences” are

socially constructed

“gender differences”.

Gender is embedded in

the images, ideas, and

language of a society.

Gender is used as a means to divide up work, allocate resources, and distribute power.

13. Sexism toward Women

Three components:

Negative attitudes toward women.

Stereotypical beliefs that reinforce, complement, or justify the prejudice.

Discrimination - acts that exclude, distance, or keep women separate.

14. The Objectification of Women

15. Gender Stereotypes


strong, rational, dominant, independent, less concerned with appearance


weak, emotional, nurturing, dependent, anxious about appearance

16. Polling Question

If you were taking a new job and had your choice of a boss, would you prefer to work for a man or a woman?



No preference

17. Gendered Division of Labor

Three factors:

Type of subsistence base.

Supply of and demand for labor.

The extent to which women's child-rearing activities are compatible with certain types of work.

18. Single Mothers with Children Under 18

Between 1990 and 2004, the number of U.S. families headed by single mothers increased by about 25%.

This marks a change in the roles of many women, and may indicate that “traditional” households are in decline.

19. Parents and Gender Socialization

Children's clothing and toys reflect their parents' gender expectations.

Children are often assigned household tasks according to gender.

20. Peers and Gender Socialization

Peers help children learn gender-appropriate and inappropriate behavior.

During adolescence, peers often are more effective at gender socialization than adults.

College student peers play an important role in career choices and the establishment of long term, intimate relationships.

21. Schools and Gender Socialization

Teachers provide messages about gender through classroom assignments and informal interactions with students.

Teachers may unintentionally show favoritism toward one gender over the other.

22. Sports and Gender Socialization

From elementary school through high school:

Boys play football.

Girls are cheerleaders, members of the drill team, and homecoming queens.

For many males, sports is a training ground for masculinity.

23. Mass Media and Gender Socialization

On television:

Male characters typically are more aggressive, constructive, and direct.

Females are deferential toward others or use manipulation to get their way.

24. Polling Question

If you could temporarily be the other gender, how long would you like to do so?

One day

One week

I have no desire to be the other gender

25. % of Women, African Americans and Hispanics in Selected Occupations

26. The Wage Gap

27. The Wage Gap

28. The Wage Gap

29. Views of Division of Labor by Gender

30. The Human Capital Model - Functionalist Perspective

According to this model, individuals vary in the amount of human capital they bring to the labor market.

Human capital is acquired by education and job training; it is the source of a person’s productivity and can be measured in terms of the return on the investment (wages) and the cost (schooling or training) .

31. Sociological Perspectives on Gender Stratification

32. Sociological Perspectives on Gender Stratification